Rule number 7: Interpreters and parenthetical elements should be set off with commas. What are they? Both interpreters and parenthetical elements pop up in the middle of a sentence to show emotions, tone, or emphasis, or to add extra information which could be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Here are examples:
Rocket launch, I am happy to report, went smoothly.
He was not, unfortunately, at the meeting.
Now I want to tell you a story. I hope you enjoy it. In any case, I hope it will be more interesting than grammar. So, let's begin.
The desert is a lot of sand. On the one hand, this is true. But if we continue to reason in this way, we will have to add that the mountains are just big stones, and the sea is a lot of water. It seems to me that this will be a very simplified view of the nature of things.
|Category||Adequate to good||Good to Excellent||Needs work|
The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.
Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."
Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.
The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors