Trying to get more fluency in tecnical texts: The global challenge is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy, while moving towards a global energy system with net-zero greenhouse gas GHG emissions in the second half of this century. A long-term strategy is needed. This will have to include investments to drastically improve energy efficiency, a substantial increase in the use of renewable and lower-carbon energy sources (such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal as well as nuclear and cleaner-burning natural gas) and greater deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). An unprecedented reduction in both energy and carbon intensity will be required to stay within the 2°C target, with declines per annum of 3% and 2.5% respectively.83 A shift away from biomass for cooking fuels and other heavily-polluting sources of energy, such as coal, is also required.
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The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.
Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."
Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.
The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors