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Faye W.C.'s picture

...

1 hour 8 min ago
Oleks's picture

I think Ed well expanded the topic in his comment below...

5 hours 1 min ago
Oleks's picture

Thank you, Ed! You gave very good suggestions. "Easily...

5 hours 6 min ago
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Thank you, Faye! I will think about it.

5 hours 9 min ago
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Thank you, Ed! Your suggestion is very good. I hate...

5 hours 13 min ago

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Structuring information for memorizing 6

Von Restorff effect
This effect is also called the isolation effect. It is based on the property of human memory to better remember prominent objects among several homogeneous objects.
In structuring information, this effect is also used: you should make structural groups heterogeneous, unlike one another. Consequently, you can quickly remember what they contain.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
0
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
0
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Structuring information for memorizing 5

Edge effect
It is noticed that we better remember pieces of information that are at the beginning and the end of the structural group. This effect is called the edge effect. It is used in structuring - important information is usually placed either at the end or at the beginning.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
1
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
1
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Structuring information for memorizing 4

The main goal of structuring information is to establish links between elements. Through these links, we can move from what we remember to what we forgot. It is like a memory knot. We see the knot, remember when and why we tied it, and then remember what we have to do.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
0
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
0
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Structuring information for memorizing 3

The first rule of structuring is: the number of units should not be more than 5−9, according to the rule of the maximum capacity of attention.
For example, the phone number recorded in this form: 16317901365 is much worse remembered than if you structure it, and write it like this: +1 (631) 79-01-365. Thus, all information, starting with phone numbers, and ending with large volumes and dictionaries of foreign languages, should be structured.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
1
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
1
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Structuring information for memorizing 2

Thus, by structuring information, you create an information framework in which you place smaller pieces of information for further storage and use. You can structure any variety of information.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
1
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
0
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
1
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
2
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
0
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
1
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
2
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Structuring information for memorizing 1

Among the various methods of memorization, the method of structuring information is one of the most effective. It is based on the ability to divide information into groups according to certain criteria, and on the ability to build connections between these groups.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
2
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
1
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
1
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
2
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
1
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
2
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
1

The method of associations 11

You can practice with a friend by making him your drudle, while he will make you his own. The best drudle will be considered one whose guesses will be the most non-trivial.
Surrealism
Imagination is also well developed by the watching of paintings, especially surreal ones. When you look at a picture with many details, they begin to open to you one after another.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
1
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
1
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

The method of associations 10

You probably remember that in this story, the child drew a boa constrictor with an elephant inside. When he showed his picture to adults, they decided that it was an ordinary hat.
The word “droodle” stands for a combination of the three words: “doodle”, “drawing” and “riddle”.
A picture of a drudle is something that looks like scribbles, but it already had a lot of guesswork in it.

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
1
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
1
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0

Some phrases to practice new words and structures

  1. Whenever the team had a problem, he would come up with a solution that would only benefit himself. He is such a self-centered person. 
Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Grammatical Accuracy

The learners ability to use nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. correctly in sentences, using verb tenses accurately, and having the correct agreement between subjects and predicates. For instance, one would say "they were" instead of "they was."

There are 3-4 grammatical errors
People thought this
0
There are 0-2 grammatical errors
People thought this
1
There are 5 or more grammatical errors
People thought this
0
Punctuation

The learner's ability to use certain marks to clarify meaning of their writing by grouping words grammatically into sentences and clauses and phrases.

There are 3-4 errors in capitalization and punctuation.
People thought this
0
There are 0-2 errors in capitalization and punctuation.
People thought this
1
There are 5 or more errors in capitalization and punctuation.
People thought this
0
Spelling

The learners' ability to form words with the correct letters in the correct order

There are 3-4 spelling errors
People thought this
0
There are 0-2 spelling errors
People thought this
1
There are 5 or more spelling errors
People thought this
0
Style

The learner's ability to tailor the written work to fit the specific context, purpose, or audience

Mostly understandable. However, there are a few errors which cause confusion.
People thought this
0
Easy to understand. Writing flows and keeps reader engaged.
People thought this
1
Quite hard to understand.
People thought this
0

The method of associations 9

Drudles
Drudles are the invention of American comedian Roger Price and producer Leonard Stern. Drudles are simple schematic drawings that can have many different meanings. A simple example of a drudle is the boa constrictor in the picture of Saint-Exupery in the story "The Little Prince".

Undefined
CategoryAdequate to goodGood to ExcellentNeeds work
Accent

The learner's ability to pronounce words shared by the people of a particular country or region of the language they are learning.

Good effort at accent. Quite close to that of a native speaker
People thought this
0
Excellent effort at accent. Extremely close to that of a native speaker.
People thought this
1
Limited effort at accent. Definitely a non-native speaker
People thought this
0
Fluency

The learner's ability to speak continuously by chunking and linking words together. For example, instead of saying very slowly, "I - am - poor. I - have - no - money" like a robot, a fluent speaker would say, "I'm poor because I don't have any money."

Speech is relatively smooth; some hesitation and unevenness caused by rephrasing and searching for words
People thought this
0
Smooth and fluid speech; few to no hesitations; no attempts to search for words; volume is excellent
People thought this
1
Speech is frequently hesitant with some sentences left uncompleted
People thought this
0
Intonation

The learner's ability to understand the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence

Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 50-90% accuracy.
People thought this
0
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with 90-100% accuracy.
People thought this
1
Able to identify and produce correct intonation, word stress and rhythm patterns with < 50% accuracy
People thought this
0
Pronunciation

The learners' ability to enunciate the various consonants, consonant blends, vowels, and vowel blends in words, words linked together, and words in sentences.

The pronunciation contained some individual word pronunciation errors. Around 3-4 errors
People thought this
0
The pronunciation is exceptional and mirrors a native speaker. Shows a clear understanding of word stress and intonation. Only 0-2 errors
People thought this
1
The pronunciation is inconsistent and made it difficult to understand. 5 or more errors
People thought this
0